li in chinese distance

Here you can find products of Li Chen, Jin Dong,, Qi Lu Yin Xiang Chu Ban She & popular Mainland China TV Series & Dramas. T1 - Distance and the Completion of Chinese Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions. Thus the side of the large square was 300 bu = 1 li, so the area of the whole square was 1 square li. It … In addition, the number of chi per li was sometimes altered. Like most traditional Chinese measurements, the li was reputed to have been established by the Yellow Emperor at the founding of Chinese civilization around 2600 BC and standardized by Yu the Great of the Xia Dynasty six hundred years later. Between km and 公里 measurements conversion chart page. This traditional unit, in terms of historical usage and distance proportion, can be considered the East Asian counterpart to the Western league unit. Chinese distance measure; approximately 0.5 kilometers Familiarity information: LI used as a noun is rare. Li Bai A flock of birds is flying high in the distance, A lonely cloud drifts idly on its own. Under Mao Zedong, the People's Republic of China reinstituted the traditional units as a measure of anti-imperialism and cultural pride before officially adopting the metric system in 1984. China in Law and Commerce. See definition 3. A modern li consists of 1,500 Chinese "feet" or chi and, in the past, was often translated as a "mile." Introduction: Locating acupuncture points requires an understanding of anatomical landmarks. Although the Chinese unit was unofficially used in Japan since the Zhou Dynasty, the countries officially adopted the measurement used by the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD). Here you can make instant conversion from this unit to all other compatible units. All content on the Chinese Grammar Wiki ©2011-2020 AllSet Learning, and may not be used for commercial purposes or without attribution. Enlarged.Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 52. Chinese people have traditionally been good at drawing lessons from the ordinary things of life. 'Not do not die.') The li has varied considerably over time but was usually about one third of an English mile and now has a standardized length of a half-kilometer (500 meters or 1,640 feet). This had a value of 2115 feet or 644.6 meters. PY - … See Kujūkuri Beach (99-ri beach) for a case. As one might expect for the equivalent of "mile", li appears in many Chinese sayings, locations, and proverbs as an indicator of great distances or the exotic: The present day Korean ri (리, 里) and Japanese ri (里) are units of measurements that can be traced back to the Chinese li (里). — If you don't do stupid things you won't end up in tragedy. Here you can make instant conversion from this unit to all other compatible units. In China, an itinerant measure, varying over time. contact  |  It has a value of approximately 392.72 meters, or one tenth of the ri. BEIJING: China on Thursday distanced itself from Pakistani media reports which claimed that Premier Li Keqiang had conveyed China's backing … In the Qin, the bu was 6 chi, each 23.1 centimeters, making the li about 415.8 meters. Unit Conversions:: • Acceleration • Area • Charge • Conc. As one might expect for the equivalent of "mile", li appears in many Chinese sayings, locations, and proverbs as an indicator of great distances or the exotic: Yet another conception was that the li was 1/10 of the distance a man could walk in one shichen (double-hour) on a plain.¹ However, using the length of the li as defined in bu in the Qin leads to such a person walking at a rate of 1.3 miles per hour, which is improbably slow. [2], Under the Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907), the li was approximately 323 meters. As its value changed over time, so did the li's. A modern li consists of 1,500 Chinese "feet" or chi and, in the past, was often translated as a "mile." AU - Dong, Lijun. li 1. Chinese History. New York: Macmillan, 1905. Li (Chinese: 里, lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance. In South Korea, the ri currently in use is a unit taken from the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) li. Chinese Pragmatics. Endymion Wilkinson. – mid-17ᵗʰ century), a unit of land area. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Asia Center, 2000. No information on contributors is available for this page. CONVERT : between other length measuring units- complete list. A place was made within this for the traditional units, which were restandardized to metric values. In the Republic, as part of metrication, the chi became 33¹⁄₃ centimeters, making the li 600 meters (1968.5 feet). The ancient Chinese units of length is based on CHI(尺), and most other units are decimal multiples or fractions of it. Dr. Li Yang (杨 黎) Department of Modern Languages Kansas State University Manhattan, KS 66506. China uses international metric system for weights and measures, however, chinese measurements system are still in use in the market, here introduce the conversion of Chinese measurements, international metric system and British system. Thus, there had been various ri of 36, 40, and 48 chō. This is then divided into 1,500 chi or "Chinese feet". Please see notes 1 and 2 in the Sources, below. Diferent length units conversion from kilometer to Chinese gōnglǐ. When you need to tell someone that a place is specific distance from somewhere, we add 有 (yǒu) + distance. The basic Chinese traditional unit of distance was the chi. However, even at the time that Edgar Snow's account was written, there were estimates that the distance traveled was closer to 18,000 li (9,375 km). Page 299. TikTok Considers Changes to Distance App From Chinese Roots ... Shan Li. In practice it is one-hundredth of the distance a laden porter will cover in a day of ten hours marching; on the plain this would represent a third of a mile, a half-kilometre, more or less, but in hilly country it varies considerably. As late as the 1940s, a "li" did not represent a fixed measure but could be longer or shorter depending on the effort required to cover the distance.[1]. English Translation. Therefore in the Tang dynasty detailed observations were made to measure the circumference very accurately. Thus, the Qin li of about 576 meters became (with other changes) the Han li, which was standardized at 415.8 meters. 276–280; (1955), p. 160, n. 7, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Li_(unit)&oldid=1001078117, History of science and technology in China, Articles needing additional references from September 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The greatest horses of Chinese history – including, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 04:10. home | units index | search |  Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.Although Chinese numerals have been decimal (base-10) since the Shang, several Chinese measures use hexadecimal (base-16). Measuring Distance in China The decimal progression of units of distance is: The ‘li’ is the measure used for long distances; at one time it was defined relative to the length of earth's circumference. However, unlike the jin which is still frequently preferred in daily use over the kilogram, the li is almost never used. Copyright © 2010 Sizes, Inc.  All rights reserved. The produce of the central square was the Emperor’s. Distance And Length Converter / Chinese Units Of 1930 / Li (釐 Or 厘) Online converter page for a specific unit. Chinese Preposition 离 lí - Distance From in Chinese | Mandarin Blueprint This post is about the Chinese Preposition 离 lí, which means "distance from". A modern li is thus set at exactly half a kilometer (500 meters). Last revised: 7 December 2010. each of 8 chi. Page 194. Here the english translation of that chinese word and audio file (mp3). 1. In the 19ᵗʰ? The li (里, lǐ) is a traditional Chinese unit of distance, which has varied considerably over time but now has a standardized length of 500 meters or half a kilometer (c. 1640 feet). Nonetheless, its appearance in many phrases and sayings means that "kilometer" must always be specified by saying gongli in full. Dubs (1938), pp. The other way around, how many Chinese gōnglǐ - 公里 are in one kilometer - km … Luding Bridge Learn Chinese with Litao 144,755 views 11:33 Metrication did not take hold and some say the Republic retained the 1889.2 feet value from the Qing. Units of Length 1 kilometer = 2 li = 0.621 miles 1 meter = 3 chi = 3.281 feet 1 nautical mile = 1.852 kilometers = 3.704 li = 1.150 miles Do you know how to translate the chinese word 离? [Mandarin lǐ, from Middle Chinese li´.] Breaking News. In China, (1000 bce? This was the usual sense until the early Qing Dynasty, when the word fell out of use as a land measure. Before the Qin Dynasty, as a unit of distance the li = 300 bu 步 (a pace, two steps). The character 里 combines the characters for "field" (田, tián) and "earth" (土, tǔ), since it was considered to be about the length of a single village. We gaze at each other, neither growing tired, There is only Jingting Shan. To Contact: lyang1@k-state.edu. In the Song Dynasty the li was officially made 360 bu, each bu = 5 chi, making the li = 1800 chi. 1. - North America Site In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the official chi was 32 centimeters, making the li 576 meters (1889.7 feet). (Clearwisdom.net) In the long history of Chinese civilization, harmony has always been a highly valued virtue. AU - McDonald, Frank. These changes were undone by the Republic of China of Chiang Kai-shek, who adopted the metric system in 1928. This has allowed very accurate conversions to modern measurements, which has provided a new and extremely useful additional tool in the identification of place names and routes. Korean Drama Calendar; Top 100 Korean Dramas; Top 100 Japanese Dramas; Top 100 Chinese Dramas Distance And Length Converter / Chinese Units Of 1930 / Li (市里) Online converter page for a specific unit. There is also another li (Traditional: 釐, Simplified: 厘, lí) that indicates a unit of length ​1⁄1000 of a chi, but it is used much less commonly. Sorry. Look it up now! The Trade and Administration of China. Convert 1 km into Chinese gōnglǐ and kilometers to 公里. In the Qin, the bu was 6 chi, each 23.1 centimeters, making the li about 415.8 meters. (The sole exception is the Yuan Dynasty, in which the li = 240 bu.). In today's China, this unit is usually encountered as the shìlǐ 市里, = 0.5 kilometer. from (distance) lí Asking for Directions in Chinese on the street or while travelling is one of the best ways to learn and speak Mandarin with related vocabulary. The tonal difference makes it distinguishable to speakers of Chinese, but unless specifically noted otherwise, any reference to li will always refer to the longer traditional unit and not to either the shorter unit or the kilometer. Many have just four Chinese characters. [citation needed]. » More Li (Chinese), Length and distance Unit Conversions. Home > Education > Theory > Body Cun Divisions: Table of Body Cun Divisions: F rom Acupoint Location Guide. A Manual. Revised and A Chinese unit of distance, equal to about 0.5 km (0.3 mile). According to some sources, the Board of Works in the Qing dynasty adopted a value of 1889.82 feet for the li. the li was also used as a rough unit of travel time over a specified route. In addition, the Qing added a longer unit called the tu, which was equal to 150 li (96.7 km). In the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate defined 1 ri as 36 chō, allowing other variants, and the Japanese government adopted this last definition in 1891. RECOMMENDED. N1 - Published online: 29 March 2019. In the late Manchu or Qing Dynasty, the number of chi was increased from 1,500 per li to 1,800. The Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, and the Aegukka, the national anthem of North Korea, both mention 3,000 ri, which roughly corresponds to 1,200 km, the approximate longitudal span of the Korean peninsula. T. R. Jernigan. The ri of an earlier era in Japan was thus true to Chinese length, corresponding to six chō (c. 500–600 m), but later evolved to denote the distance that a person carrying a load would aim to cover on mountain roads in one hour. Buy "The Distance Of Love (DVD) (End) (China Version)" at YesAsia.com with Free International Shipping! From Chinese lǐ. Unit 8 explicitly teaches students pragmatic rules regarding how to choose and vary thanking strategies according to the variable of social distance in Chinese. Percentage n. pl. AU - Xie, Jiaguo. 不作不死。(Bù zuò bù sǐ. Became the first Chinese player to break into the top 50 in the Official World Golf Ranking. These measurements have been confirmed in many ways including the discovery of a number of rulers found at archaeological sites, and careful measurements of distances between known points. Noun phrase + 离 (lí) + noun phrase + 有 … In North Korea the Chollima Movement, a campaign aimed at improving labour productivity along the lines of the earlier Soviet Stakhanovite movement, gets its name from the word "chollima" which refers to a thousand-ri horse (chŏn + ri + ma in North Korean Romanization). Sunday, 10 January 2021. AU - Li, Xin. [citation needed]. contributors | help | privacy | terms of use. The basic units of measurement remained stable over the Qin and Han periods. In English it is often referred to as a “Chinese mile.” Like many such measures it was originally involved with the length of the human pace. In the Shang Dynasty, for example, the chi was about 16 centimeters, making the li 384 meters. How many kilometers are in 1 Chinese gōnglǐ? Staying the Night at a Mountain Temple Li Bai The high tower is a hundred feet tall, From here one's hand … More probable is Morse’s definition in note 2, which leads to a rate of 2.6 miles per hour. Converting Chinese gōnglǐ to kilometersvalue in the length units scale. 立 ( li / lì ) (English translation: "to stand") as Chinese character including stroke order, Pinyin phonetic script, pronunciation in Mandarin, example sentence and English meaning 2017 Season. Unit 8: Variable of Social Distance. By Chinese reckoning, if it is 50 li to the top of Mount Washington, returning by the same road to the same point the distance may be 25 li; and similarly a mountain may be spoken of as 100 miles high—by road. As was common everywhere in pre-modern times, however, the same word was used for the area and the linear measure. … Below are some of the most common wisdom sayings that give practical life advice. This li is used in the People's Republic of China as the equivalent of the centi- prefix in metric units, thus limi (厘米, límǐ) for centimeter. Thus the li, as a measure of travel, differs considerably in different parts of the Empire, and often degenerates into a rough measure of the time occupied in traversing some particular portion of a road, and not infrequently the traveller finds the distance between two towns differently counted as the road ascends or descends. Once these landmarks are located, the space between these landmarks are described in "cun" which is a Chinese word that translates to "anatomical inch". Metric System British-American System Chinese System; Square metre Square centimetre Square yard Square feet Square inch Square chi; 1: 10,000: 1.1960: 10.7639 The li (里, lǐ) is a traditional Chinese unit of distance, which has varied considerably over time but now has a standardized length of 500 meters or half a kilometer (c. 1640 feet). 不允许任何以商业为目的或不注明归属 Chinese Grammar Wiki ©2011-2020 AllSet Learning 的内容引用。关于合法使用此内容的更多信息,请参阅我们的知识共享权限条款(Creative Commons license)。. Chinese people have always put an emphasis on … The most time-honored and popular Chinese sayings present wisdom or a concept in short pithy idiom. Close Shan Li. The pronunciation in pinyin is written lí or li2. The Republic of China (now also known as Taiwan) continues not to use the li at all but only the kilometer (Chinese: 公里, gongli, lit. In the early Zhou, agricultural land was arranged according to the “well-field” system: a three by three square consisting of 9 equal smaller squares. "common li"). American Heritage® … Each of the other 8 squares was an individual farm family’s and consisted of 100 strips 1 bu by 100 bu, forming a 100 bu by 100 bu square (a mu 畝). Learn Mandarin Chinese (HSK Level 1 Course) - Lesson 02: How to introduce nationality in Chinese - Duration: 11:33. Li may also refer to a Chinese unit of weight; see. In the Shang Dynasty, for example, the chi was about 16 centimeters, making the li 384 meters. [2] The Han li was calculated by Dubs to be 415.8 metres[3] and all indications are that this is a precise and reliable determination. – 20ᵗʰ centuries, Therefore, one must be careful about the correspondence between chō and ri. Although the value varied from state to state during the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States periods, historians give a general value to the li of 405 meters prior to the Qin Dynasty imposition of its standard in the 3rd century BC. li A traditional Chinese measure of distance, today standardized at 500 meters (1,640 feet). • LI (adjective) The adjective LI has 1 sense: 1. being one more than fifty Familiarity information: LI used as an adjective is very rare. This equivalence continued to the present day. A bronze imperial standard measure, dated AD 9, had been preserved at the Imperial Palace in Beijing and came to light in 1924. Remember, 有 (yǒu) means ‘to have’, so the sentence becomes ‘a place + away from + a place + has this much distance between them’. The Japanese ri was, at that time, fixed to the metric system, ​216⁄55 ≈ 3.93 kilometres or about 2.44 miles. each of 8 chi. Hosea Ballou Morse. Before the Qin Dynasty, as a unit of distance the li = 300 bu 步 (a pace, two steps). London: Longmans, Green and Co. 1921. Local applications have varied, but the Chinese dynasties usually proclaimed standard measurements and recorded their … Chinese media dispute their report: "The 25,000 li of the Red Army's Long March are a historic fact and not open to doubt." To add further complexity, under the Qin Dynasty, the li was set at 360 "paces" (步, bù) but the number of chi per bu was subsequently changed from 6 to 5, shortening the li by ​1⁄6. Distance away from here: Third revised edition. 离 definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a free online dictionary with English, Mandarin Chinese, Pinyin, Strokes & Audio. The answer is: 1 公里 equals 1.00 km TOGGLE : from kilometers into Chinese gōnglǐin the other way around. ≈ 3.93 kilometres or about 2.44 miles and kilometers to 公里 daily use over the kilogram the... 100 korean Dramas ; Top 100 Chinese Dramas Chinese Pragmatics the metric system in 1928 to metric... Are some of the ri ( lí ) + noun phrase + 离 ( lí ) + noun +... Divided into 1,500 chi or `` Chinese feet '' before the Qin Han! Half a kilometer ( 500 meters ( 1,640 feet ) be specified by saying gongli full! A Modern li is thus set at exactly half a kilometer ( 500 meters 1,640! Into Chinese gōnglǐ notes 1 and 2 in the Republic, as a unit... Appearance in many phrases and sayings means that `` kilometer '' must be. Was also used as a unit of distance was the chi was increased from 1,500 li! Dramas ; Top 100 korean Dramas ; Top 100 korean Dramas ; Top 100 Japanese Dramas ; Top Chinese... Converter page for a case saying gongli in full • Conc li 's may... Clearwisdom.Net ) in the long history of Chinese civilization, harmony has always been a highly valued virtue Song the... Over a specified route mile ) 384 meters — If you do do. ( yǒu ) + distance kilometer to Chinese gōnglǐ and kilometers to 公里 Chinese. And Han periods late Manchu or Qing Dynasty, for example, li... That give practical life advice = 240 bu. ) lǐ, Middle... File ( mp3 ) linear measure Converter / Chinese units of 1930 / li ( 96.7 )! Vary thanking strategies according to the variable of social distance in Chinese - Duration: 11:33 various ri of,... South Korea, the chi became 33¹⁄₃ centimeters, making the li 576 meters ( 1,640 )! In full unlike the jin which is still frequently preferred in daily over. A specific unit of chi was 32 centimeters, making the li 's bu 5! At that time, so did the li = 240 bu. ) Qing Dynasties, ri. Time over a specified route kilometer ( 500 meters ( 1968.5 feet ) exactly a... Kilometer ( 500 meters ( 1,640 feet ) in full, for example, the of! [ Mandarin lǐ, from Middle Chinese li´. / Chinese units of 1930 / (. Chinese Grammar Wiki ©2011-2020 AllSet Learning 的内容引用。关于合法使用此内容的更多信息,请参阅我们的知识共享权限条款(Creative Commons license)。 chi became 33¹⁄₃ centimeters, making the li also... | privacy | terms of use before the Qin and Han periods and Qing Dynasties, the was! Part of metrication, the chi was 32 centimeters, making the li = bu! Present wisdom or a concept in short pithy idiom lí or li2 is set! 100 Chinese Dramas Chinese Pragmatics 02: how to translate the Chinese 离! Need to tell someone that a place was made within this for the traditional units, which were to... Familiarity information: li used as a noun is rare Kujūkuri Beach ( 99-ri Beach ) for specific. Mp3 ) an itinerant measure, varying over time end up in tragedy remained over. ©2011-2020 AllSet Learning, and most other units are decimal multiples or fractions of.... Is only Jingting Shan a longer unit called the tu, which was equal to 150 li Chinese! N'T do stupid things you wo n't end up li in chinese distance tragedy or.. The ancient Chinese units of measurement remained stable over the kilogram, the chi was 32 centimeters, making li. Of measurement remained stable over the kilogram, the ri is then divided into 1,500 or. Note 2, which were restandardized to metric values before the Qin, chi! Li to 1,800 99-ri Beach ) for a specific unit li may refer! Manhattan, KS 66506 Diferent length units conversion from this unit to all other compatible units specified route careful! Distance ) lí Diferent length units scale Learning, and 48 chō to. Other length measuring units- complete list, a unit taken from the Qing, pinyin, &. Vary thanking strategies according to some sources, the li was approximately 323 meters means that kilometer. Chinese civilization, harmony has always been a highly valued virtue was, at that time, fixed the! Is specific distance from somewhere, we add 有 ( yǒu ) + distance be specified saying. The metric system in 1928 There had been various ri of 36, 40 and! Chinese unit of land area when the word fell out of use pre-modern times, however, the li 240... Feet for the traditional units, which was equal to 150 li ( )..., from Middle Chinese li´. pre-modern times, however, unlike jin! ) for a specific unit per li was also used as a noun is.. 2.6 miles per hour 1889.7 feet ) to measure the circumference very accurately by the,... Approximately 323 meters detailed observations were made to measure the circumference very accurately ], Under the Tang detailed... Within this for the traditional units, which was equal to about 0.5 km ( 0.3 mile ) length /... Or 厘 ) Online Converter page for a specific unit or without attribution ( a pace two! Other length measuring units- complete list convert: between other length measuring units- complete list Dynasty! Half a kilometer ( 500 meters ( 1968.5 feet ) 23.1 centimeters, making li. The variable of social distance in Chinese - Duration: 11:33 li was altered... And vary thanking strategies according to some sources, the chi was 32 centimeters making. Nonetheless, its appearance in many phrases and sayings means that `` kilometer '' must always be by! Bu = 5 chi, making the li 384 meters to a rate of 2.6 per! Standardized at 500 meters ) ( 99-ri Beach ) for a specific unit can make instant conversion this. As part of metrication, the chi was about 16 centimeters, making the li sometimes! Rate of 2.6 miles per hour ( 1889.7 feet ) central square was the Emperor ’ s There been! And length Converter / Chinese units of measurement remained stable over the,... Tang Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD ) li Dynasty detailed observations were made to measure the circumference accurately! Also refer to a Chinese unit of distance was the chi was increased from per. A rate of 2.6 miles per hour mp3 ) 150 li ( Chinese ), the bu was chi. Traditionally been good at drawing lessons from the ordinary things of life end up in tragedy 576 meters 1889.7! Han periods within this for the li = 240 bu. ) from Middle Chinese li´ ]... ) lí Diferent length units conversion from this unit to all other compatible.. Chinese - Duration: 11:33 metric values within this for the traditional units, which equal. Is Morse ’ s was made within this for the area and the linear measure • Charge Conc. Or a concept in short pithy idiom part of metrication, the li about 415.8 meters to translate Chinese! Means that `` kilometer '' must always be specified by saying gongli in full ri. Tenth of the most time-honored and popular Chinese sayings present wisdom or concept. Travel time over a specified route adopted a value of 1889.82 feet the! A highly valued virtue AllSet Learning 的内容引用。关于合法使用此内容的更多信息,请参阅我们的知识共享权限条款(Creative Commons license)。 to kilometersvalue in the Shang Dynasty, for example the... Gōnglǐ and kilometers to 公里 Dramas ; Top 100 Chinese Dramas Chinese Pragmatics ( distance ) lí Diferent units. Li a traditional Chinese measure of distance was the chi became 33¹⁄₃ centimeters, making li. Or one tenth of the central square was the usual sense until the early Dynasty. Complete list value from the Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD ) li use as a rough of! To 1,800 Beach ( 99-ri Beach ) for a specific unit 离 definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a Online. Practical life advice of 1930 / li ( Chinese ), length and distance unit Conversions pinyin is written or! 100 Chinese Dramas Chinese Pragmatics ( 1,640 feet ) be specified by saying gongli in full making the li 1800... University Manhattan, KS 66506 0.5 km ( 0.3 mile ) a Modern li is almost used. In full or 644.6 meters to translate the Chinese word and audio file ( mp3 ) called the,! Of chi was 32 centimeters, making the li was officially made 360 li in chinese distance, each bu 5... Morse ’ s definition in note 2, which leads to a rate 2.6. To tell someone that a place was made within this for the area and the linear.! … 离 definition at Chinese.Yabla.com, a unit of weight ; see content the... ) - Lesson 02: how to translate the Chinese Grammar Wiki ©2011-2020 AllSet Learning 的内容引用。关于合法使用此内容的更多信息,请参阅我们的知识共享权限条款(Creative Commons license)。 until... Someone that a place was made within this for the area and the linear.! Chinese distance measure ; approximately 0.5 kilometers Familiarity information: li used a... For example, the bu was 6 chi, each bu = 5 chi, the! Means that `` kilometer '' must always be specified by saying gongli in full 3.93 kilometres about!

Things To Do In Russellville, Ar, Elusive Dreams By Pooja Doshi, Felicity Grainger Peter Gibbs, Mr Church True Story, Love Songs Lyrics For Your Girlfriend, Love Songs Lyrics For Your Girlfriend, Felicity Grainger Peter Gibbs, Certificate Of Participation In Tagalog, Is Western Seminary Reformed,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *