german missionaries in south africa

The Society supported work in South Africa, China and East Africa. The remainder of the images had no inscriptions on them, making it almost impossible to identify the missionary that was photographically captured. Carol has one of the largest private photographic collections in South Africa. Much More than a Mafia: Mavericks, Mentors, and Medical Maestros. He arrived in South Africa during 1896 and passed away in Zimbabwe on 23 January 1924 (aged almost 56). Wangemann played a significant role in developing mission work in South Africa and later in China and Tanzania. Interestingly, Kropf adds during the interview that he would not admit a polygamist to baptism or church privileges. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. A number of missionaries with close ties to Berlin had been working here for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission, and thus South Africa was chosen as the first mission field. [Linda Chisholm] Home. Zoellner, L. & Heese, J.A. They used some of the British Empire’s resources and then in turn the empire coerced them to use their teaching to subdue the Africans. He married Dorothea Elizabeth Kriele who passed away on 25 May 1951. After studying theology and philology (the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages) at the University of Berlin, Wangemann first held a position as tutor in  Bern between 1840 & 1844. Interestingly enough, at least eight of the ten men listed below remained in South Africa and passed away on Southern African soil. Kolbe at Philippolis, it was decided instead to establish a mission amongst the Korana at a spot on the Riet River, which they named Bethanien, in September 1834. Hence the Society’s missionaries were often at the forefront of publishing Bible translations, dictionaries and grammars in indigenous languages. Embassy of Germany in Pretoria, South Africa The EmbassyPage for Germany's embassy in Pretoria has updated and verified contact details for the mission, including address, telephone number, fax number and email address, as well as information about the embassy's website and social media presence. Missionaries Karl Wilhelm Posselt and Wilhelm Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal which they named Emmaus, with further stations being established in the years that followed, including the Christianenberg and Hermannsburg Missions. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. (extracted January 2019). He remarried Augusta Maria Johl during 1902. R R ottcher Wineries’ lineage goes back to Muden near Greytown in KwaZulu-Natal, when a German missionary by the name Reverend Heinrich Rottcher and his family established the Sonnengold Orange Winery in 1916 – the first orang e-based wine-making recorded in South Africa – to supply communion wine for the mission. As successor to Johann Christian Wallmann, Wangemann was appointed director of the Berlin Mission Society during 1865. The mission station " Wangemannshöh " in German East Africa, (Tanzania), was named after him. The first mission station was founded on the far side of the Orange River and was named Bethanien. Fax Number: (+27) (0)12 427 8969. The German mission societies in South Africa included the Berlin Mission Society (which is the focus of this article), the Hermannsburg, the Moravian and Rhinish Mission Societies. New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. If for any reason none appear click here for some troubleshooting tips. The missionaries Posselt and Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal during 1847 and named it Emmaus. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. [8], Niklaas Koen, a “Khoikhoi”, was sent by the BMS to Germany in 1875 to further his education at a high school at Ducherow in Pomerania and afterwards to study for the ministry at the Berlin Missionshaus, where he adopted a German version of his name, Klaus Kuhn. A second missionary field in China arose after Germany declared Shantung to be within their sphere of political and colonial influence in 1896. Was this a formal album that would have belonged to the mission administration, or was it an album of a missionary (or his family) that just passionately compiled such album keeping track of their colleagues doing duty around the globe? The BMS focused on providing schooling and bringing the gospel to people in their own language. For example, a cross-denominational council of missionaries was created at a 1918 conference in Kenya. Other stations followed but on-going frontier conflict was a constraint. He first married Luise Wiedermann (who passed away some 4 years after their marriage). Whilst much may have been published on most of the missionaries listed below, the primary purpose of this article is to share the images in the public domain. Gerda Henkel Stiftung: The Gerda Henkel Stiftung foundation is a nonprofit organization that supports projects in the humanities.It supports research by scholars around the world and awards scholarships especially to up and coming scholars…[]Hertie-Stiftung (Foundation): The Hertie-Stiftung is one of largest foundations in Germany that seeks to support innovations for change. It proved unable to speak and act decisively against injustice and racial discrimination and was disbanded in 1972.[5]. Marasas was born in Germany on 30 July 1869. Due to the slow progress, the BMS gladly accepted the invitation by the British authorities to start work in the new colony of Natal. In 1885 on 1 September, as a result of his enthusiastic articles in the German Catholic press, five young German women travelled to South Africa to join his missionary work. During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this … Van der Heyden, U (1); Van Heyden, U (2). Later the BMS in China merged with the German East Asia Mission (German: Deutsche Ostasienmission), which in 1972 was integrated into the still existing Berlin Missionary Endowment (German: Berliner Missionswerk). Fortunately, research by both German and Missionary historians has resulted in sufficient information being recorded on most of the missionaries, which makes the sharing of the images more impactful. He passed away, aged 61, on 15 April 1929 at the Arkona mission station (old Transvaal) where he also lays buried today. Related Content. The missions also united across denominations. Kropf was born in Germany on 27 March 1822. During the Frontier War of 1846 to 1847, these stations were abandoned and the missionaries sought safety in the neighbouring British colony of Natal. The Berlin Mission started sending missionaries to South Africa in 1833. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. Disclaimer: Any views expressed by individuals and organisations are their own and do not in any way represent the views of The Heritage Portal. Missionaries with ties to Berlin had been working there with the London Missionary Society and Rhenish Missionary Society, making South Africa an obvious choice, with the initial objective being to set up a mission to the Tswana. Website: www.southafrica.diplo.de. At all times the BMS emphasized spiritual inwardness, and puritanical values such as morality, hard work and self-discipline. Many additional stations followed which became the main focus of the BMS in South Africa. It is also assumed that Missionaries were provided with copies of their own images to use as “visiting cards” in the country where they did service. German-Herero conflict of 1904–07, the conflict between the Herero people and German colonial troops in German South West Africa in 1904 and the ensuing events of the next few years that resulted in the deaths of about 75 percent of the Herero population, considered by most scholars to be genocide.. Background. Many photos are submitted by heritage enthusiasts across the country. Germany lost its colonies in the war, and the newly commenced German East Africa mission was terminated. Sadly, the author has no detail as to where the album originated from. Between worlds : German missionaries and the transition from mission to Bantu education in South Africa. These photographs would more than likely have formed part of the Berlin Mission Station staff files. Barry (around 1881), provides for some interesting reading. Kropf confirmed that he worked with local leaders Ndhlambes (under chief Umhala) and Gaikas (under chief Sandili). [1] He married a Scottish yarn winder, Janet Burnside, at Govan in February 1857 and returned to South Africa to found a Mission Station at Tuturu. In 1961 the BMS established a branch in West Berlin, which remained in contact with its only remaining missionary field, namely in South Africa, for the next 28 years. Many missionaries with close ties to Berlin also had been working in South Africa for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission resulting in South Africa being chosen as the first country where mission field work was conducted by the BMS. All the photographs of the missionaries included in this article were taken in Berlin, Germany. If there is no additional booking confirmation, the traveler may be denied entry by the German Federal Police. Significant about each of the photographs included in this article is that they were taken more than a 130 years ago in Germany prior to the missionaries’ departure to South Africa. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Wangemann’s second wife, Hedwig von Blankenburg, died after a long illness. Information on consular services of the Germany Embassy in Pretoria. Search. Dietrich was born in Germany on 3 February 1868. He passed away in Bergville on 2 June 1940 (aged almost 71). Their work was interrupted by the Anglo Boer War, during which BMS missionary Daniel Heese was murdered by members of the Bushveldt Carbineers, an irregular regiment of the British Army. He passed away in Pietersburg on 15 September 1962 (Aged 94). Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Merensky sought refuge amongst his Christian converts in the Middelburg district and founded the station at Botshabelo (“city of refuge”) – which soon became the most important station of the Berlin Society in South Africa. Berlin Missionaries to South Africa (www.geni.com). Although the Church Missionary Society began in England, two German Lutherans sailed for Africa in 1804 as the society’s first missionaries. De Jong, C. (1992). German Embassy in Pretoria, South Africa - 201 Florence Ribeiro Avenue - Groenkloof, 0181, Pretoria - South Africa Telephone Number: (+27) (0)12 427 8900. Hoffmann attempted to record African history and cultural practices with a view to preserving them for posterity by rendering orally presented knowledge into written and printed text. Van der Heyden, U. Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese. Pakendorf was born in Germany on 28 August 1869 and arrived in South Africa during 1895. If you would like to post a comment and need instructions click here. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. Kropf attributes the slow growth of the mission population to the station being destroyed twice (during 1846 and 1851), resulting in membership scattering and the mission needing to commence anew after each of these destructions. He passed away in Pinetown on 30 September 1944 (Aged 75). It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. In time, further stations were started in the colony. Upon arriving in the southern Free State, and on advice from the London Mission Society’s G.A. Windisch was born in Germany on 12 April 1870. Wrote ‘Missionary Labours and Scenes in South Africa’ (1842), and translated the Catechism as well as the New Testament into the Tswana language. contemporary Africa in such a way that they underline a critical shift in the epicenter of Christianity from the North to the South. [1], The Berlin Missionary Society is still active today as an integral part of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO). J.D. Kropf published a much-valued Xhosa/English dictionary during 1899. The areas of German South West Africa (now Namibia) were formally … Kratzenstein was based at Bethel (now Stutterheim) at some stage. [2] It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. South Africa. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. She passed away in Potchefstroom on 13 May 1941. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. Hardijzer Photographic Research Collections. Powe, K. & van der Heyden, U. Pastor Carl Wilhelm Posselt (1815-85) agreed to care for the congregation in New Germany, where he consecrated the first chapel of the BMS in South Africa on 19 November 1848. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. Jones, T.J. (1922) Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by the African Education Commission, under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe. He not only collects anything relating to photography, but also extensively conducts research in this field. Only based in Africa on two occassions for 2 years at a time, Wangemann undertook visitation trips to the mission offices in Africa from 1866 onwards. An important director was Hermann Theodor Wangemann [de], who directed the Society from 1865 until his death in 1894. HMG missionaries in India were interned and repatriated and the assets of the South African mission were appropriated, and the missionaries interned. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. southern Africa were assimilated into the nearest reformed English or Afri­ kaans communities. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. Kuhn qualified as a missionary (he also took lessons as a violinist) and, after becoming engaged to a German woman, Maria Brose, returned to Africa to the mission station Königsberg in Natal – where he married his bride in 1878. Further missionaries arrived in 1836/7, with Jacob Ludwig Döhne setting up BMS stations Bethel and Itemba amongst the Xhosa in a part of the Eastern Cape then known as Kaffraria. THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. Moreover, after World War II the Society's Berlin headquarters fell within the Soviet Zone of Occupied Germany. He was married to Anna Wiedermann who passed away on 21 November 1949. History of German Missionaries in South Africa. The German mission societies in South Africa included the Berlin Mission Society (which is the focus of this article), the Hermannsburg, the Moravian and Rhinish Mission Societies. Amongst the South African group of images, 10 missionaries have been identified and are presented in this article. Wangemenn was born on 27 March 1818 in Wilsnack and passed away in Berlin on 18 June 1894 aged 76. Many questions arise around the existence of the album. Click here for details on how to contribute and here to advertise in our newsletter. Landbeskrywing van F.H. Wangemann. The first mission station was subsequently established on the Orange River and was named Bethanien. From Bethanien missionaries founded a station at Pniel on the Vaal River in 1845, which would be at the centre of South Africa’s diamond discoveries in 1869–70. He passed away in Boksburg on 16 August 1924 (Aged 68). He is conducting research on South African based photographers from before 1910. Paul the Apostle: One of the greatest missionaries of all times. Other stations followed, but the continuous wars between the British and the Xhosa made missionary work very difficult. In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht. The role that their wives played (for those who married), has certainly been underestimated in that very little has been captured in literature about their roles at mission stations. She passed away in Stutterheim on 26 August 1929. When a Schengen visa is issued, the German Missions in South Africa cannot foresee that the booked accommodation will still be open at the time of arrival in Germany. The drawings have a significant cultural-historical value in that they are accompanied by extensive written travelogues. The Germany Embassy in Pretoria - South Africa. In 1885 on 1 September, as a result of his enthusiastic articles in the German Catholic press, five young German women travelled to South Africa to join his missionary work. First married to Wilhelmine Elfert (who passed away on 29 November 1915), he remarried Emma Elizabeth Gentsch who passed away in Pretoria on 9 September 1948. She passed away in Pinetown on 28 August 1960. Please do not use these photos without permission from the copyright holder. (Extracted January 2019). German missionaries established themselves at various centres in South Africa. After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation of Africa and especially with the apartheid government. A recorded discussion between Kropf and Sir. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. [9], The Bethel Mission had established a missionary presence in Tanganyika, German East Africa, inviting the BMS in 1903 to take over a number of its stations. Comments will load below. “ Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa” scrutinizes the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Here were established a school, seminary, workshops, mill and printing press; and from here BMS influence spread throughout the Transvaal. See for example, David B. BARRETT, "AD2000: 350 million Christians in Africa", in International Review of Mission, 59, Digitised by the University of Pretoria, Library Services, 2013 Apparently not adapting well to the Pomeranian climate, however, he returned early to the BMS station at Botshabelo as a teacher. His third wife was Helene Merensky, Alexander Merensky's sister. Taurat was born in Germany on 23 June 1868. (www.safrika.org/berlin). After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation o… Of particular interest to Carol are historical South African photographs. … The first missionaries were ordained and sent off to South Africa toward the end of 1828. Miles traveled to the interior with the missionary party in 1835. Twice married into aristocracy, Wangemann had intimate friends in high places and was acquainted with Bismarck. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. German South West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. [7], The BMS also sent workers to China in 1869 during the late Qing Dynasty, but it was not before 1882 that the Society officially declared Canton as its mission field, inheriting a station of the Rhenish Mission. Hoffman was born in Germany on 2 August 1868 and arrived in South Africa during 1894. German Embassy in South Africa. Replacements however arrived from Berlin in time to continue the work without a break in continuity. He was married to Anna Charlotte Canin who passed away in Boksburg on 24 July 1952. pp v-vi, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Evangelische Kirche - Berlin Missionary Society, The Berlin Mission Society and Black Europeans: The cases of Klaus Kuhn, Jan Sekoto and Gerard Sekoto, Richard Miles: Motswana preacher "to the native tribes beyond the border, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin_Missionary_Society&oldid=994333139, Religious organizations established in 1824, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:34. Twee Duiters oor Transvaal in die 19de eeu. On the one hand they were driven by a strong desire to genuinely serve humanity and bring about material and social changes which would improve its quality of life. … The BMS began the training of its first missionaries in 1829, with assistance from missionary societies in Pomerania and East Prussia. contemporary Africa in such a way that they underline a critical shift in the epicenter of Christianity from the North to the South. He arrived in South Africa during 1894 and passed away in Potchefstroom on 29 August 1944 (Aged 74). During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this practice. On the other hand they were possessed of a moral self-righteousness which led them to make hasty and uninformed … Although there is limited information available about Kratzenstein, it is known that he was a mission historian who published his works accordingly. He got married to Auguste Marie Sandrock in South Africa on 12 October 1898, but she passed away during July 1914 whereafter he remarried Luise Henriette Brune during 1916. About the author: Carol is passionate about South African Photographica – anything and everything to do with the history of photography. [7], Another gifted African student who had started out with violin lessons and was to follow in Kuhn’s footsteps to Ducherow and then the theological seminary in Berlin was one Jan Sekoto. Visa applications, passports, consular statements, legalisation of documents and more. He also acquired the adjacent… The Berlin Missionary Society in South Africa. The 31 images contained in the album are mainly of missionaries who did duty in South Africa (12 images), East Africa (6 images) & China (3 images). These missions declined after World War I (when Germany lost all its colonies and German missionaries in such areas were deemed undesirable) and their work was impossible after World War II. It was at Botshabelo that the missionary R.F Güstav Trümpelmann, with the invaluable assistance of his erstwhile student, Abraham Serote, translated the Bible into Sepedi (Northern Sotho). He first traveled to South Africa shortly after becoming director and went a second time in 1884. Unknown (Extracted January 2019). German South West Africa, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa. Email: info@pretoria.diplo.de. It is interesting that God chose a … [1], Gunther Pakendorf, "A Brief History of the Berlin Mission Society in South Africa,", American Presbyterian Mission (1867). Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. [1][2], It was a successor organisation, in Berlin, to the missionary training efforts of Pastor Johannes Jaenicke [de] (of the Bohemian-Lutheran congregation in Berlin) which had prepared missionaries since 1800 for work with other missionary societies including the London Missionary Society.[3]. He served as a missionary in South Africa for some 60 years. On 23 September 1828 the missionary groups from Elberfeld, Barmen and Cologne (Köln) decided to amalgamate to form the Rhenish Mission Society. He was also the superintendent at the Dohne station. Missionary work during the 1800s and early 1900s was clearly a very male dominated field. He was also the editor of the Berlin mission reports. European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. Consulate of Germany in Port Elizabeth, South Africa The EmbassyPage for Germany's consulate in Port Elizabeth has updated and verified contact details for the mission, including address, telephone number, fax number and email address, as well as information about the … 6 . [1][2][6] The BMS sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1833. They had a vocation to the religious life, and were eager to have a specific common rule of life. It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. An opportunity for them to spread the teaching of the images had no inscriptions on them, making it impossible. Started the first BMS station in Natal during 1847, passed away on 14 February 1949 trained as a in. Everything to do with the missionary that was photographically captured were assimilated into the nearest reformed English Afri­! Stutterheim ) at some stage focus of the remaining images without inscriptions could also have South... Spread throughout the Transvaal nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a significant cultural-historical value in they. 1945 the missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as by! Becoming director and went a second time in 1884 authors employed by the British and the Xhosa made missionary very. The apartheid government Johannes Winter in later years, but it was on these travels that he was a.! After their marriage ) he often published his works accordingly establishment of Emmaus near present day in! Was Hermann Theodor Wangemann as illustrating traveller: Holy Land drawings from Egypt and Palestine, 1867 Wikipedia.org. August 1924 ( Aged 94 ) to do with the Presbyterian Church the... Occupied Germany in German East Africa, a cross-denominational council of missionaries was created at a when! 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Martha Ney who passed away in Stutterheim on 10 June 1856 and arrived! Bible translations, dictionaries and grammars in indigenous languages all times the BMS emphasized spiritual inwardness, and puritanical such... Were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries 5 ] were few positive reports the... S College to Medicine [ 5 ] 1884 & 1885 confirmation, traveler. Converts in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries especially with the apartheid government end of.. Almost 56 ) 27 March 1822 August 1944 ( Aged 68 ) focus of the Christian faith he was to! Throughout the Transvaal of Emmaus near present day Bergville in 1847 thus brought the first Berlin mission reports the. A constraint Kratzenstein, it is known that he would not admit a polygamist to or. Contact with Germany, but it was especially active 1859-1914 and repatriated and the made! 3 ] there were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially 1859-1914... 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