It its more problematic forms it can lead to identification with the aggressor, a mechanism by which the individual will try to overcome the pain by being like his aggressor. Sometimes, what was projected to other people would be projected back. the mother) is an extension of the baby, therefore in his omnipotent phantasy, it can be controlled by him. states of mind âpositionsâ rather than âstagesâ, because she said that they are This is an example of how the ego functions can counterbalance anxiety by means of defensive activity (Sandler, 1960) without regressive tendencies. These two cases of extrinsically motivated behavior vary in the degree to which they are relatively autonomous. Internalization is the process of taking in a value or regulation and making it one’s own. What he did was describe the manifestations of repression which he then proceeded to link to their antecedents and consequences. There is ample clinical (e.g., Horowitz, 1986) and research (e.g., Vaernes, 1982) evidence in support of this position. Although extrinsic motivators have typically been found to be controlling rather than supportive of autonomy, there is still the important question of whether it is possible for people to be autonomous or self-determined when doing a task that is uninteresting and, therefore, was extrinsically prompted. A. Psychic Defense Mechanisms: Introjection the fantasy of physically taking into one's own body the images that one has of an external object, especially the mother's breast. The split-off parts become phantasized as having taken FIGURE 1. 1). Her ideas elucidated how infants processed their anxieties around feeding and relating to others as objects and part-objects. Thus, in a virtual monologue a girl (age 3.9) who had dreamed of a ghost ready to swallow her reassured herself by saying: "There are no ghosts, no, really not" (denial of a subjectively believed fact) and "when the ghost comes back my daddy will chase him away" (introjection). In this article, we review the rapidly expanding research in this area of work, including measurement approaches, empirical findings, and treatment strategies. Identification presumes the child's cognitive ability to recognize the variety of role dimensions that exist in interactions with others, and involves the capacity of the self to model itself after the object influenced by fantasy and affect. Although the last three all represent internal motivation, they vary in the degree to which the behaviors they motivate are autonomous. The construct of internalization can be traced back at least 150 years to the early writings of Freud, who conceptualized it as a component of his defense mechanism of introjection. Intrinsic motivation and fully integrated extrinsic motivation are the two bases for highly autonomous or self-determined behaviors. Introjection, one of many defense mechanisms posited by Sigmund Freud, occurs when a person internalizes the ideas or voices of other people. More than three decades of research have now shown that the quality of people’s experience and performance vary as a function of the degree to which a behavior is autonomous or self-determined. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_23',199,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,600],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_17',197,'0','0']));report this ad. Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly autonomous but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is autonomous. But from the ruins there arises first the feeling of guilt, then the drive for reparation and love. (The International Psycho-analytical Library, No. Integrated regulation represents a relatively full sense of autonomy, volition, and personal commitment, with introjection representing a relative lack of these qualities (Fig. To be self-regulating, people must make internal what was initially external. Wolfram Ehlers, in Advances in Psychology, 2004. Attempts to provide definitive listings of defenses are complicated by issues such as whether normal developmental processes (such as introjection, or identification) should be included, or whether successful coping mechanisms, such as suppression and humor, should be considered defense mechanisms (Cramer, 2000). Klein, M. (1946). C. Levesque, ... E.L. Deci, in International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), 2010. In 1926, Freud (1926/1963) undertook to differentiate the concepts of repression and defense. These fantasies are psychic representations of unconscious id instincts; they should not be confused with the conscious fantasies of older children and adults. For example, someone who felt lacking intellectually would project intellectual capacity (which was really inherent in him or her) to others and then idealize those people (this may be the basis of hero worship). Notably then, whereas supports for autonomy and competence are particularly important for maintaining intrinsic motivation for an activity, supports for relatedness are also important for internalization. In these regards, then, one can now see how the study of joy and delight provided a starting point for an examination of how to facilitate optimal motivation for even the mundane tasks that are encountered each day in people’s lives. The former example, of introjection, is about controlling oneself, and the process bears considerable similarity to being controlled by other people. Projection was the opposite of introjection. They would act out their own aggressive phantasies but also their desire for reparation through play. Klein sits with the difficult emotions that her patients find hard to bear and helps them accept the complex, dark realities of relationships, the loss implicit in love, the annihilation implicit in life. A person who lacked self-confidence would project skills perceived to be lacking to others. It is often employed in trauma, where a split-off part holds the unbearable feelings. As such, people do these behaviors quite autonomously, even though the behaviors themselves are not inherently satisfying. … introjection is the aspect of the ego’s system of relational mechanisms which handles checks … it becomes identification. For Kleinians, the aim of psychoanalysis is to enable the adult client to tolerate the Depressive Position more securely, even though it is never fixed and we all topple into paranoid phantasies and polarizing viewpoints. Kleinâs (1946) concept of Projective Identification is credited with widening the notion of countertransference, particularly though the work of Bion. Part-objects are now viewed as whole people, who have their own relationships and feelings; absence is experienced as a loss rather than a persecutory attack. The second instance, although still extrinsic, is characterized by a greater sense of personal endorsement and choice than is the first instance, which involves compliance with the control that has been explicitly or implicitly created by the boy’s mother. In contrast, in projection, the owner of an unacceptable thought or feeling projects the thought outward and attributes it to some other individual: the unacceptable thought ‘I hate Tom’ becomes ‘Tom hates me.’ For both displacement and projection, the object of the unacceptable feeling is changed (anger at boss changes to anger at son; anger at Tom changes to anger at me) but projection involves additionally a change in the subject of the emotion (‘I hate’ becomes ‘Tom hates’). person or object. (1993). Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory (SDT) proposed that intrinsic motivation is invariantly self-determination but that extrinsic motivation can vary greatly in the degree to which it is self-determination. Among the most frequently cited defense mechanisms are repression, denial, displacement, projection, reaction formation, undoing, isolation, rationalization, intellectualization, and sublimation. Psychoanalyst Jaqueline Rose (1993) has noted that, especially in the USA, Kleinâs work has been rejected because of her violence and negativity. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 16, 145-174. When this has occurred, people will feel fully autonomous as they enact an extrinsically motivated behavior, for it would then emanate from their integrated sense of self. 22.). One factor that affects the degree to which people will become self-determined for behaviors that were initially externally prompted is whether the behaviors were clearly valued by others to whom they feel connected. The same affect, however, which has not completely lost its strength, can become an unconscious source of energy for the formation of neurotic symptoms. He terms these self-object-affect triads. This behavior is commonly associated with the internalization of external authority, particularly that of parents. Types of Extrinsic Motivation based on the degree to which a regulation and its underlying value have been internalized. More specifically, the theory states that there are various forms of extrinsic motivation: one where the regulation is external to the person, one where the regulation has been merely introjected and so must be buttressed by internal reward or punishment (e.g., guilt) contingencies, one where the person has identified with the importance of the behavior for himself or herself, and one where the regulation has been fully integrated with other aspects of the person’s self. Some attempts have been made to classify defenses in terms of cognitive complexity, level of abstraction, developmental maturity/immaturity, and degree of psychopathology (Cramer, 1991a; Perry and Cooper, 1989; Vaillant, 1977), but no single classificatory system has been agreed upon. Oxford: Blackwell. : Psychoanalysis, politics, and the return to Melanie Klein (p. 137). The definition then, as it is currently, is an acceptance and incorporation of the beliefs or standards of others into one’s own world view or schema. (reaction formation). The child's relation to an object (e.g. not stages we progress through, but positions, or ways of being, that we SDT uses the concept of introjection to refer to the type of internalization that leads to this internally pressured regulation. In the context of object relations theory, the term "objects" refers not to inanimate entities but to significant others with whom an individual relates, usually one's mother, father, or primary caregiver. For example, stressing the intimacy and nurturing of the mother. “Klein posited that a healthy development implies that the infant has to split its external world, its objects and itself into two categories: good (i.e., gratifying, loved, loving) and bad (i.e. Thus, Klein would say that infants who fall asleep while sucking on their fingers are fantasizing about having their motherâs good breast inside themselves. This process already constitutes a component of repression proper (or that of adult repression, starting after the formation of the superego), whereas primal repression was regarded by Freud as having a partially organic basis, as elaborated in his description of defense mechanisms by Paul Kline in Chapter 2. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-3','ezslot_21',116,'0','0'])); Kleinâs (1921) theory of the unconscious focused on the relationship between the motherâinfant rather than the fatherâinfant one, and inspired the central concepts of the Object Relations School within psychoanalysis. Her latest book Who the hell is Melanie Klein? var idcomments_post_url; //GOOGLE SEARCH Its diagnostic relevance has been recognized by the inclusion of defense levels and individual defense mechanisms as a proposed axis in DSM-IV, the current version of the diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). S á ndor Ferenczi emphasized the idea of identification with the aggressor in post-traumatic syndromes through introjection of the adult's feelings of guilt.. Perhaps because she challenged him, Freud dismissed Klein, later defending his daughter Anna against her. Porcerelli, in Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second Edition), 2016. In his project for a neurologically based psychology, Freud (1954) also conceptualized a hypothetical neuronal network as a generalized model of defense. It may be noticed that Vaillant placed most of the classical defense mechanisms as listed and described by A. Freud (1946) on Level III. Uwe Hentschel, ... Gudmund Smith, in Advances in Psychology, 2004. In some cases, the term object may also be used to refer to a part of a person, such as a mother's breast, or to the mental representations of significant others. These mechanisms can help you avoid feelings of unpleasantness … Splitting occurs when a person (especially a child) can't keep two contradictory thoughts or feelings in mind at the same time, and therefore keeps the conflicting feelings apart and focuses on just one of them. Anna Freud (1946) described ten prominent defense mechanisms that had emerged from the psychoanalytic literature by that time: regression, repression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against the self, reversal, and sublimation. The The repressed idea takes its revenge however by becoming pathogenic” (Freud, 1893/1964, p.116). The idea is that the challenge of becoming self-regulating of activities that are important for people but are not themselves personally compelling can be met through the process of internalization. Spontaneity and flexibility in responding to challenges also suffer impairment. At the lowest level, the mechanisms distort reality, at the highest, they bring about its integration with interpersonal relationships and feelings, At intermediate points, defenses alter distress and modify the experience of feelings, and they may appear odd, inappropriate, or socially undesirable from an outside point of view. Introjection is the process by which what is outside oneself is misinterpreted as coming from the inside. For Kernberg (1976) internalization entails three processes: Introjection, the most basic, involves the reproduction of an interaction with the environment by means of the clustering of memory traces attached to the self- or object-image and the interactions of the two in their affective context. When the process functions optimally, individuals will have transformed an externally regulated extrinsic motivation into an internally regulated extrinsic motivation by integrating the regulation and its value into their sense of self. Introjection is a term first used by Sigmund Freud to describe how the individual creates and separates aspects of his/her personality. In particular, when a person introjects or goes through the process of introjection, they generally create the superego, the ruling moral force or conscience that helps keep the id (the pleasure seeking aspect of the self) at bay. Melanie Klein wrote a paper in 1946 called “Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms” in which she first mentioned the phrase “projective identification”. Outside of the psychoanalytic framework, it has been demonstrated that defense mechanisms are invoked in response to threats to self-esteem (Grzegolowska-Klarkowsla & Zolnierczyk, 1988), identity status (Cramer, 1995, 1997, 1998), objective self (Grzegolowska-Klarkowska & Zolnierczyk, 1990), and core personal beliefs (Paulhus, Fridlander, & Hayes, 1997). In addition, people must feel sufficiently competent at the focal behavior to do it satisfactorily; that is, people will be more likely to internalize a goal if they have the relevant skills and understanding to become successful at it. In later life, we see the same process in adults projecting their unwanted fears and hatred onto other people, resulting in racism, war and genocide. Klein, M. (1932). Identification is the phantasy of projecting a part of oneself into the other By providing the kinds of supports that help to maintain intrinsic motivation, one can also facilitate internalization and integration that will enhance the quality of motivation and engagement with the more mundane activities as well as the more interesting ones. In the Depressive Position, a child learns to relate to its objects in a completely new way. Moses N. Ikiugu PhD, OTR/L, in Psychosocial Conceptual Practice Models in Occupational Therapy, 2007. As such it constitutes an important manifestation of psychopathology of everyday life (Freud, 1901/1948; Jones, 1911), i.e., the intrusions of irrationality into the ideation and action of adequately functioning, rational human beings. Segment 5 is marked by major fluctuation in Factor 2 while Factor 1 remains largely constant across segments. In the first phase of his construction of the ego apparatus, Freud (1894, 1896) described the role of repression and later that of defense in general in modifying traumatic ideas, with the potentially pathological mechanism of defense cutting off an unbearable idea from its affect. Love, Guilt and Reparation, 252. It is based on an unconscious phantasy of ingestion. On that view, the Oedipus and Electra complex that gives rise to the superego should be conceived not as something to be explained merely in terms of completely subjective and mostly unconscious happenings, but mainly as the child’s full entrance into intersubjectivity, which in turn is a necessary condition for having a conscious mind and entertaining thoughts. Several chapters in this book attest to the complex interplay of physical illness and disability with the operation of defense mechanisms, in their discrete manifestations or in the form of more inclusive styles or patterns of defense. E.L. Deci, in Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, 2017. Factor A, which refers to the structural analysis of development, contains immature defense mechanisms related to the superego, such as turning against self, introjection, regression, and predominance of affect equivalents, with respective loadings of 0.53, 0.49, 0.47, and 0.59. Klein herself wrote: âMy method presupposes that I have been from the beginning willing to attract to myself the negative as well as the positive transferenceâ. Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do school work they do not find interesting, and eventually, as adults, to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. In its prototypical form, the mechanisms of denial is cognitively rather simple, involving only the attachment of a negative sign to a perception (Cramer, 1991a): for example, “the night is frightening” is changed to “the night is not frightening.”. It seems that the only available answer for the advocate of Freudianism would be to say that as soon as these relationships or attitudes are internalized, they lose their particularity and become more abstract, and hence applicable to other, relevantly similar situations. An introjected object is drawn into the 'inner circle', but can still have a life of its own. first year, after the primal Paranoid-Schizoid Position. Beside their often pathogenic consequences described in the classical psychoanalytic literature (e.g., Fenichel, 1945), defense mechanisms generate demonstrably positive effects. Object relations theory is a variation of psychoanalytic theory. SDT uses the concept of introjection to refer to the type of internalization that leads to this internally pressured regulation. It is exacted in the form of reduced awareness of both self and environment. Ego identity, borrowed from Erikson (1959b), as the overall organization of introjections and identifications under the synthesizing influence of the ego. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323041829500076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080427073001826, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849250000791, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080448947006126, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166411504800414, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0126574103006899, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128093245056133, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123739322002039, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166411504800268, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123970459000203, Psychological Theories that have Contributed to the Development of Occupational Therapy Practice, Psychosocial Conceptual Practice Models in Occupational Therapy, Internalization of Thin-Ideal and Muscular-Ideal, Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination☆, Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition), Fenichel, 1945; Madison, 1961; Matte Blanco, 1955; Sjöbäck, 1973, Cramer, 1991; Fenichel, 1945; Sjöbäck, 1973, Grzegolowska-Klarkowsla & Zolnierczyk, 1988, Grzegolowska-Klarkowska & Zolnierczyk, 1990, ), defense mechanisms generate demonstrably positive effects. var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; J.K. Thompson, ... J.E. 1). In displacement, thoughts or feelings about one person are transferred or displaced onto another (who is often less powerful or less important to the individual). That is, they are within the person but not fully endorsed by the self. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-1','ezslot_22',142,'0','0'])); And indeed, through subtle manipulations, the recipient can be made to feel and act in accordance with the projective phantasy. oscillate between throughout development and into adult life. Figure 1. Within SDT, extrinsically motivated behaviors can become more autonomous through a process in which people internalize the values and regulations associated with the behaviors. Hence, a system of morality is justified, if at all, not by its correspondence to the preexisting reality, but by bringing about a state of social equilibrium. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11, 24-39. P. Cramer, J.H. Infants first experience splitting in their relationship with the primary caregiver: The caregiver is âgoodâ when all the infantâs needs are satisfied and âbadâ when they are not. An inverse relationship has emer between Factors 1 and 2. A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. Thus, SDT views internalization in terms of a continuum that describes how fully the person has transformed an external prompt into an internal regulation that will allow volitional or “choiceful” behavior. A girl who takes out the garbage because she personally values family harmony and believes that her participation in doing this task will help to maintain that harmony is also extrinsically motivated. Psychic Defense Mechanisms According to Klein, children adopt various psychic defense mechanisms to protect their egos against anxiety aroused by their own destructive fantasies. Etherington, L. (2020, Febuary 12). In short, when people feel supports for relatedness, competence, and autonomy with respect to an extrinsically motivated behavior, they are likely to internalize its value and regulation quite fully and thus be able to execute the behavior autonomously. Sam is 4 years old and dressing himself fairly well by now. Children must begin to interact congenially with playmates, then to do schoolwork that they do not find interesting, and eventually (as adults) to hold gainful employment and function within the laws of society. A prominent example of an early unbearable idea is the incestuous impulse of the child directed at the parent of the opposite sex. Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. Menzel, in Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance, 2012. Types of extrinsic motivation based on the degree to which a regulation and its underlying value have been internalized. Introjection as a defense mechanism refers to the internalization of mental representations attributed to an external object, or the so-called introject, introjected object, or internal object (Rycroft 1995). For example, ‘repression’ is generally thought of as being directed against painful internal thoughts or impulses, while ‘denial’ is directed against disturbing external stimuli, the perception of which would arouse painful feelings. In Otto Kernberg's model, affects serve as the primary motivational system (Kernberg, 1983). In the ensuing steps of the sequence, the superego, evolving through identification with parental authority, was postulated to stimulate repression, with the possible result of infantile amnesia for these impulses. Toward the end of Freud’s career, a virtual catalogue of defense mechanisms had emerged. Their names were well known to practicing analysts, and their operations were routinely noted and often interpreted in the course of psychoanalysis. In a less readily observable manner, this progression occurs in a variety of real-life settings. Klein, M. (1961). that she uses to describe the developmental stage that occurs in an infantâs Various studies have examined how the social conditions within which a regulation is internalized affect how fully it is internalized and, thus, how autonomous the subsequent behavior will be. She also delineated between the experiences of girls and boys and gave more power to the mother.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-3','ezslot_24',621,'0','0'])); In the Kleinian Oedipal stage, a world of part-object phantasies, boys want to protect their motherâs insides (her womb, or stomach) from their fatherâs aggressive penis. Motivational system ( Kernberg, 1983 ) the conscious fantasies of older children adults! Relative lack of these qualities ( Fig refer to the type of internalization that to. 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