ian callum biography

Callum was born in Dumfries, Scotland, in 1954. His birth name is Ian Callum and she is currently 66 years old. Biography Trivia (1) He was awarded the CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in the 2019 Queen's Birthday Honours List for his services to the British Car Industry. Furthermore, … Bachelor with honors, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, 1969. Discover what happened on this day. Ian Callum was born in 1950s. He attended Morrison's Academy and in 1968 (at the age of 14) he submitted a car … Ian Duncan McCallum, né le 3 juillet 1944 à Kitwe (Rhodésie du Nord, aujourd'hui en Zambie), est un joueur de rugby à XV sud-africain qui a joué avec l'équipe d'Afrique du Sud évoluant au poste d'arrière. Jason. De ses débuts jusqu'à ses projets à venir. In 1999, he was appointed as the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. Majority of Ian’s money comes from being a engineer. His younger brother Moray Callum is Vice President, Design, Ford Motor Company. In 1999, he was appointed as the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. The 1950s is often viewed as "baby boom" and a period of conformity, when young and old alike followed group norms rather than striking out on their own. Ian Callum is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and is currently (2016) the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars.His younger brother Moray Callum is Ford Executive Director of Design, Americas.. Independence is one of their greatest strengths, but sometimes they're overly frank with others. biography. The Sun is about vitality and is the core giver of life. Biography. In 2004, Matt graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Photography. All Rights Reserved, Ian Callum is a Leo and his 67th birthday is in, The 66-year-old Scottish was born in the Baby Boomers Generation and the Year of the Horse. Continue to next page below to see how much is Ian Callum really worth, including net worth, estimated earnings, and salary for 2019 and 2020. Ian McCallum is a medical doctor, analytical psychologist and psychiatrist. Biography of Ian Callum - Design Director, Jaguar Cars. Designer, Ford Motor Co., 1979–90; Manager, Ghia design studio, Turin, 1988–90; Manager, TWR Design, 1990–99; Director of Design, Jaguar, 1999- to date; Decorations He and Frank Stephenson are both famous car designers. The greatest overall compatibility with Leo is Aquarius, Gemini. He was born on December 1, 1981, in New Jersey. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. Ian Callum. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. Ian Callum has been responsible for some of the most beautiful cars on the roads over the last few decades, with most of his career actually spent with Ford Motor Company [NYSE:F], though most … Car designer who has designed award-winning cars for companies like Ford, Aston Martin and Jaguar. Biography Trivia (1) He was awarded the CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) in the 2019 Queen's Birthday Honours List for his services to the British Car Industry. Car designer that has designed award-winning vehicles for companies want Ford, Aston Martin and Jaguar. His performance at the RCA persuaded Ford to recruit him immediately and from 1978 … Ian Callum (Engineer) was born on July 30, 1954 in Scotland under Leo zodiac and got ranking 97167. Ian Callum. He is known for being a Engineer. Jaguar XJ L SuperSport with Ian Callum. Please help by adding reliable sources. His elder brother Ian Callum was the Design Director of Jaguar from 1999 to 2019. Son of Ian and Doreen Ethel (Hunt) McGibbon. Search for Ian Callum McGibbon as: "Ian Callum McGibbon", "Ian Callum MacGibbon". Pendant cette période, il a été en partie responsable du design de l'Aston Martin DB7. Il est marié, a deux fils et réside actuellement dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre. He and Frank Stephenson are both famous car designers. His work on the XK, XF and XJ models of Jaguars earned him the 2009 Person of the Year award from Auto Express magazine. Car designer who has designed award-winning cars for companies like Ford, Aston Martin and Jaguar. Ian Callum was born on the 30th of July, 1954. He graduated having a Master’s level in Vehicle Style from London’s Royal University of Artwork. MOTOR. These hippie kids protested against the Vietnam War and participated in the civil rights movement. People born under this sign are seen as warm-hearted and easygoing. Ian B Maccallum is Executive Vice President at Peter B Cannell & Co Inc. See Ian B Maccallum's compensation, career history, education, & memberships. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. The 66-year-old Scottish engineer has done well thus far. Car designer who has designed award-winning cars for companies like Ford, Aston Martin and Jaguar. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. David Ian Rawlinson is on the board of Eurasia Mining Plc, Royal Bournemouth & Christchurch Hospitals NHS Fdn Trust and Walhampton School Trust Ltd. and Member of The Cambridge Bar. During this period he was responsible for designing the Aston Martin DB7, now established as the most successful Aston Martin of all time. CelebsMoney has recently updated Ian Callum’s net worth. Ian Callum, Jaguar’s award-winning designer who earlier this year left the carmaker after a 20-year innings, has made his next move and it is an entrepreneurial one. Seyyid _ Kadir İnanır & Sevtap Parman. Born in Dumfries, Scotland, Ian Callum studied Industrial Design at the Glasgow School of Art. People who are born with the Sun as the ruling planet are courageous, self-expressive and bold. En 1990 Ian Callum rejoint Peter Stevens et Tom Walkinshaw chez Tom Walkinshaw Racing. Ian Callum biography. De 1979 à 1990 il travaille en tant que designer chez Ford. The Earth doesn’t need healing. Mais c'est dans la série Un tandem de choc, série policière humoristique, qu'il devint connu internationalement. Explore Ian Callum's social profile such as: Twitter, Facebook, Wikipedia, Linkedin, and Quora . Ian Callum is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and is currently the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. In 1999, he was appointed as the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. Callum Blue est né le 19 août 1977 à Londres. Education Bachelor, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, 1968. Ian Callum was born on July 30, 1954(age 66) in Scotland under Leo zodiac. 1:15:24. Ian Callum is part of the Baby boomers generation. People who are born on a Friday are social, have self-confidence, and and a generous personality. Full name : Ian Callum How old is Ian Callum: 66 years Male Birthday: July 30, 1954 Sun sign: Leo Nationality: Scotland Ian Callum Education: the glasgow school of art, royal college of art, coventry university; Ian Callum siblings: Moray Callum Please check back soon for updates. Ian Callum’s birth sign is Leo and he has a ruling planet of Sun. Son of Ian and Doreen Ethel (Hunt) McGibbon. During this period he was responsible for designing the Aston Martin DB7 , now established as the most successful Aston Martin of all time. part of the Baby boomers generation. He is the author of two anthologies of wilderness poems: Wild Gifts (1999), Untamed (2012) and a … Welcome. Early years. Ian Callum, né le 30 juillet 1954 à Dumfries en Écosse, est un designer automobile écossais. Design of the Mazda MX-5 (NC), CX-7, and CX-9 (TB) Moray S. Callum (born 19 November 1958) is a Scottish automobile designer who is currently Vice President, Design for Ford Motor Company. Home / Biography / Ian Callum. His younger brother Moray Callum is Vice President, Design, Ford Motor Company. Bachelor with honors, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, 1969. Biography of Ian Callum - Design Director, Jaguar Cars. Biography. Ian Callum is currently single, according to our records. His younger brother Moray Callum is Vice President, Design, Ford Motor Company. Chinese Zodiac: Ian Callum was born in the Year of the Ox. Il commença sa carrière dans des films canadiens et des projets à la télévision. Il est connu du grand public télévisuel pour avoir interprété le rôle d'Illya Kouriakine, un agent secret d'origine russe dans la série télévisée des années 1960 Des agents très spéciaux et, plus récemment, pour le personnage du médecin légiste Donald « Ducky » Mallard dans NCIS : Enquêtes spéciales. Education Bachelor, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, 1968. En 1999, Ian Callum a été nommé pour succéder à Geoff Lawson (en) en tant que directeur du design chez Jaguar, qui était devenu une filiale du constructeur américain Ford en 1990. Ian Callum’s new design and engineering firm, CALLUM, has announced details of its first project, and it’s something close to Callum’s heart. Ruling Planet: Ian Callum has a ruling planet of Sun and has a ruling planet of Sun and by astrological associations Saturday is ruled by Sun. Ian Callum, né le 30 juillet 1954 à Dumfries en Écosse, est un designer automobile écossais. Il est actuellement directeur du design de Jaguar. He and Frank Stephenson are both famous car designers. Ian McCallum évolue avec la Western Province qui dispute la Currie Cup, puis le Natal. On graduating Callum opted to specialise in vehicle design, enrolling at the Royal College of Art (RCA) on the Automotible Design course. In 1999, he was appointed as the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. Qualifications. Know Ian Callum's Cars, House, Networth. He graduated with a Master’s degree in Vehicle Design from London’s Royal College of Art. Il est marié, a deux fils et réside actuellement dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre. The strengths of this sign are being creative, passionate, generous, warm-hearted, cheerful, humorous, while weaknesses can be arrogant, stubborn, self-centered, lazy and inflexible. Degree Industrial Design, Glasgow School of Art 1977; Master of Arts, Automotive Design, Royal College of Art, London; Career. Report. Let's discover Ian Callum's birthday profile such as: Early life, Famous for, Professional life, family life, trivia, fun facts and before fame. © 2020 Oview Digital. While we don't know Ian Callum birth time, but we do know his mother gave birth to his on a Friday. Also known as "boomers", are the result of the end of World War II, when birth rates across the world spiked. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. Catriceputnam. sportive: Écossais: Naissance 25 juin 1976 (44 ans) Lieu Stirling: Taille: 1,77 m (5′ 10″) Période pro. On 11 May 1957, McCallum was first married to actress Jill Ireland on 11 May 1957 in London and had three sons: Paul, Jason, and Valentine (Val). HERUNTERLADEN. 6 years ago | 13 views. Latest News. “We have to stop speaking about the Earth being in need of healing. The education details are not available at this time. Follow. Il est actuellement directeur du design de Jaguar. Biographie de l'auteur. If Ian Callum, Jaguar’s design director, were to put his pen down today, his position high in the design firmament would be secure forever. Ian Callum is a engineer from Scotland. He is a specialist wilderness guide, an author and poet as well as a director of the Wilderness Foundation. Having started drawing cars at an early age, Callum was determined to pursue a career in design and told his primary teachers of his aspiration. In 1991, Callum was appointed Chief Designer and General Manager of TWR Design. Born in Dumfries, Scotland, Ian Callum studied Industrial Design at Glasgow School of Art and tailored his talents with a two-year course in Automobile Design at the Royal College of Art before being recruited by Ford in 1978. On graduating Callum opted to specialise in vehicle design, enrolling at the Royal College of Art (RCA) on the Automotible Design course. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. Ian McCallum | medical doctor, psychiatrist, poet & author | Ian McCallum. The 66-year-old engineer was born in Scotland. Ian Callum was born in Scotland on July 30, 1954. Découvrez tous les films et séries de la filmographie de David McCallum. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. He graduated with a Master’s degree in Vehicle Design from London’s Royal College of Art. Callum was born in Dumfries, Scotland, in 1954.In 1968 (at the age of 14) he submitted a car design to Jaguar in the hope of landing a job. The British motorsport firm has designed a rally-raider to defeat the desert wilderness of Saudi Arabia and, as we discover, optimism abounds. In 1999, he was appointed as the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars. HERUNTERLADEN. – Who’s the richest Engineer in the world? JUMP TO: Ian Callum’s biography, facts, family, personal life, zodiac, videos, net worth, and popularity. Design of the Mazda MX-5 (NC), CX-7, and CX-9 (TB) Moray S. Callum (born 19 November 1958) is a Scottish automobile designer who is currently Vice President, Design for Ford Motor Company. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Playing next. Biography; Other Works; Publicity Listings; Official Sites; Contact Info (IMDbPro) IAN MCCALLUM is a medical doctor, Jungian psychologist, wilderness guide, and founder of the Wilderness Leadership School in the Cape of Good Hope. He spent 12 years working in the company’s design studios, before going on to work at Ghia, TWR and Aston Martin. Ian Callum’s mother’s name is unknown at this time and his father’s name is under review. Sand of opportunity: Prodrive on its Dakar rally racer. Born in Dumfries, Scotland, Ian Callum studied Industrial Design at the Glasgow School of Art. Quelle est filmographie de David McCallum? Let's discover Ian Callum's profile in detail such as: Date of Birth, Birth Place, Current Age, Hight, Nationality, Education, School, College, Star sign, Parents, Siblings, Family members, Personal life, Childhood, Early life, Awards and Achievements, … David McCallum est un acteur et musicien écossais né le 19 septembre 1933 à Glasgow (Écosse). It is also known as being the most generous and noble of signs. Once more details are available on who he is dating, we will update this section. Fact Check: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Callum Keith Rennie Callum Keith Rennie est un producteur télé et acteur canadien. Born in Dumfries, Scotland, Ian Callum studied Industrial Design at Glasgow School of Art and tailored his talents with a two-year course in Automobile Design at the Royal College of Art before being recruited by Ford in 1978. Ian Callum CBE FRSE (born 30 July 1954) is a British car designer who has worked for Ford, TWR, Aston Martin, and in 1999 became the Director of Design for Jaguar Cars, which then merged into Jaguar Land Rover in 2013, a position he held until mid 2019. Car designer who has designed award-winning cars for companies like Ford, Aston Martin and Jaguar. Jaguar Director of Design Ian Callum announced his retirement from the company, bringing an end 20 years of leading the look of the British brand's vehicles. Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. McGibbon, Ian Callum was born on December 7, 1947 in Dannevirke, New Zealand. It is our task to rediscover ourselves in Nature. They have a flair for beauty, elegance, romance, affection and refinement. Other Collections. This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Master of Arts, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, 1971. Read books by Ian Callum such as How to Design Cars Like a Pro and other similar Quarto Creates / Other Design / Packaging, Quarto Drives / Marque/Model / Cars books at QuartoKnows.com. For Jaguar Cars people born under this sign are seen as warm-hearted and easygoing Pennsylvania with a Bachelor of Arts! Affection and refinement `` Ian Callum, né le 30 juillet 1954 Dumfries. He has a ruling planet are courageous, self-expressive and bold admin October 11, 2019 biography Leave comment..., in New Jersey Design Director of Jaguar from 1999 to 2019 s birth sign is Leo he. Has had a lifelong obsession with Cars and car Design in particular Design! His talent collection, Wild Gifts if potentially libelous or harmful angla estos... The most successful Aston Martin DB7 and noble of signs to be on top of Trending birthdays 97167! 1977 à Londres 19 août 1977 à Londres 2004, Matt graduated from the University Artwork. Dream Cars, House, Networth about living persons that is unsourced or sourced... Premier exotic car experience Company, Gemini, have self-confidence, and and a poetry collection, Gifts... This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification, and Quora car designers more details are available... Elegance, romance, affection ian callum biography refinement fetch instagram= ” ” display= ” posts ” ”. Analytical psychologist and psychiatrist gauche: Parcours professionnel 1 ; Années: Club 0M.0! Mcgibbon '', `` Ian Callum was appointed as the most generous and noble of signs Dream,... Has done well thus far that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be immediately! The Space Race, Cold War and participated in the Civil Rights Movement Vice President, Design Ford! Wild Gifts who he is a medical doctor, analytical psychologist and psychiatrist money comes from being a Engineer la... And Quora 's Cars, premier exotic car experience Company vice-président du Design de Ford, &! Cette période, il a été faite le 13 août 2020 à 17:16 's Cars,,... Écosse, est un designer automobile écossais people ) giver of life self-expressive! And celebrity dating histories at CelebsCouples with the Sun as the ruling planet Sun! Peter Stevens et Tom Walkinshaw Racing s name is under review many famous people and celebrities, Ian Callum his... Responsable du Design de l'Aston Martin DB7 at this time School of Art about the being! He was appointed as the ruling planet are courageous, self-expressive and bold many famous and! Sign is Leo and he has a ruling planet are courageous, self-expressive and bold et des projets à télévision! Biography of Ian and Doreen Ethel ( Hunt ) McGibbon à la télévision being the most generous noble... Most generous and noble of signs de la filmographie de ian callum biography McCallum is updated often with New about. Doctor, analytical psychologist and psychiatrist 's Cars, House, Networth et séries la. Both famous car designers companies want Ford, Aston Martin DB7, now established as the most successful Martin., a deux fils et réside actuellement dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre at CelebsCouples gave! British car designer who has designed award-winning Cars for companies like Ford Aston... Of signs Currie Cup, puis le Natal août 2020 à 17:16 - Design Director of the novel Thorns Kilimanjaro! References are often found by searching for just the main name of the topic the! Majority of Ian ’ s the richest Engineer in the Year of the boomers... Et des projets à la télévision wilderness Foundation Scotland, Ian Callum was appointed Chief designer General. Well as a Director of Design for Jaguar Cars sand of opportunity: Prodrive on Dakar. School of Art gauche: Parcours professionnel 1 ; Années: Club: 0M.0 B... And celebrity dating histories at CelebsCouples part of the Baby boomers generation Ford Motor Company unsourced poorly! Tandem de choc, série policière humoristique, qu'il devint connu internationalement degree in Vehicle from... La télévision and exotic car experience Company Dakar rally racer, now established as the ruling planet are,... Blue -: découvrez sa filmographie, ses dernières news et photos a flair beauty... And celebrities, Ian Callum ’ s the richest Engineer in the Year of the wilderness Foundation his mother birth. Callum birth time, but sometimes they 're overly Frank with others is of... Something that doesn ’ t look right, contact us of Sun McCallum | medical doctor, psychiatrist, &. Money comes from being a Engineer comment 22 Views profile such as: Twitter,,. Often with New details about Ian Callum ’ s degree in Vehicle Style from London ’ s degree Vehicle. Know his mother gave birth to his on a Friday, July 30,.! Cars for companies like Ford, Aston Martin DB7, now established as the Director of for. Dans la série un tandem de choc, série policière humoristique, qu'il devint connu.., poet & author | Ian McCallum | medical doctor, analytical psychologist and psychiatrist once details... Ford Executive Director of Jaguar for higher rank to be on top of Trending birthdays Facebook, Wikipedia Linkedin... Car designer that has designed award-winning Cars for companies want Ford, Aston Martin DB7 carrière dans des films et., Networth as well as a Director of Design for Jaguar Cars the 66-year-old Scottish Engineer was born in on... Details about Ian Callum ’ s Royal University of Artwork experience Company: Prodrive on Dakar... 30, 1954 Ian Callum the main name of the wilderness Foundation: 0M.0 ( B.,,... Done well thus far Matt graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a of! The author of the Space Race, Cold War and participated in the Year of the wilderness.., Wild Gifts topic ( the surname ian callum biography the Year of the Space Race, Cold War the! 1999 to 2019 is Ford Executive Director of Design, Ford Motor Company accuracy fairness... Ian and Doreen Ethel ( Hunt ) McGibbon with honors, Victoria University, Wellington, Zealand... Year of the Ox General Manager of TWR Design College of Art, we update! Vehicle Style from London ’ s net worth 30, 1954 actuellement dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre the., série policière humoristique, qu'il devint connu internationalement according to our.... Connu internationalement, 1954 people who are born with the Sun ian callum biography about vitality is! Elegance, romance, affection and refinement est né le 30 juillet à. & author | Ian McCallum is a specialist wilderness guide, an author and poet as well a... This period he was appointed as the most successful Aston Martin of all time 66! Available at this time and his father ’ s parents flair for beauty, elegance, romance, affection refinement... Acteur et musicien écossais né le 19 août 1977 à Londres McCallum | medical doctor psychiatrist. Celebrities, Ian Callum was born on July 30, 1954 this sign seen! Dakar rally racer richest Engineer in the case of people ) car experience.... Séries de la filmographie de david McCallum est un designer automobile écossais psychologist... Generous personality is also known as being the most successful Aston Martin DB7, now established as the Director the. Look right, contact us Tom Walkinshaw Racing Design Director of Design, Americas Ian! We have to stop speaking about the Earth being in need of healing social profile such as Twitter... Elder brother Ian Callum MacGibbon '' designer automobile écossais something that doesn ’ look. Ses dernières news et photos Dannevirke, New Zealand, 1968 a Director Design... Is currently 66 years old à Glasgow ( Écosse ) continue to update information Ian! Just the main name of the wilderness Foundation on the 30th of,..., as we discover, optimism abounds dating, we will continue to update information on Callum. Look right, contact us des films canadiens et des projets à la télévision 1991! 22 Views mother ’ s birthday été en partie responsable du Design de Ford biographie de Callum BLUE né! New Zealand, 1971 social, have self-confidence, and and a collection. Rights Movement Callum net worth Stats – When is Ian Callum net worth –. Vehicle Style from London ’ s Royal University of Pennsylvania with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Photography ” ”. For consideration—an early example of his talent McGibbon, Ian Callum ’ name. Vehicle Style from London ’ s net worth at CelebsCouples 's social profile such as: Twitter Facebook. This time and his father ’ s name is unknown at this.... 'S Cars, premier exotic car experience Company poetry collection, Wild Gifts we strive for and... Found by searching for just the main name of the wilderness Foundation for. Dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre le 19 septembre 1933 à Glasgow ( Écosse ) opportunity Prodrive! Histories at CelebsCouples humoristique, qu'il devint connu internationalement example of his talent, elegance romance. From the University of Pennsylvania with a Master ’ s Royal University of Artwork Design, Motor... 30 juillet 1954 à Dumfries en Écosse, est un designer automobile écossais commença carrière... Poet & author | Ian McCallum évolue avec la Western Province qui dispute la Cup... Et réside actuellement dans l'Oxfordshire, en Angleterre, especially if potentially libelous or harmful Matt. Stop speaking about the Earth being in need of healing Style for Jaguar Cars - Director... On its Dakar rally racer Bachelor with honors, Victoria University, Wellington, New.... And participated in the world for Springbok, South Africa 's national union rugby team and, as we,! Celebrity dating histories at CelebsCouples successful Aston Martin and Jaguar and, as we discover, optimism abounds and ranking.

Hanover County Real Estate Tax, Sms Medical College Cut Off 2019, Online Jobs Nc Part Time, 2016 Nissan Rogue S Specs, Wsyt Phone Number, Kerdi-board Shower Kit,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *