During the Agadir Crisis in 1911 Britain supported France against Germany, and Morocco became a French protectorate. The Third Anglo-Burmese War, in which Britain conquered and annexed the hitherto independent Upper Burma, was in part motivated by British apprehension at France advancing and gaining possession of territories near to Burma. ", B. Olatunji Oloruntimehin, "Education for Colonial Dominance in French West Africa from 1900 to the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army. In 1825 Charles X sent an expedition to Haïti, resulting in the Haiti indemnity controversy.  In 1884, the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry, declared; "The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior races." (Light blue Ist empire, dark blue IId empire) The "Nouvelle France" in the 17 and 18 th centuries Northern America in the 18th century French settlements in India 17-18th centuries ... Anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999) At several points war seemed possible, but no outbreak occurred. “ ” The very flatness of the staged colonial postcards, with their plain descriptions of a foreign place and its people, persuaded French viewers of the photographs' authenticity.  France's most important Caribbean colonial possession was established in 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. The French made their last major colonial gains after World War I, when they gained mandates over the former territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is now Syria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon.  The Brazzaville manifesto proclaimed: The manifesto angered nationalists across the Empire, and set the stage for long-term wars in Indochina and Algeria that France would lose in humiliating fashion.  After 1946 the policy was to bring the best students to Paris for advanced training. In Algeria demonstrations in May 1945 were repressed with an estimated 6,000 to 45,000 Algerians killed. France also extended its influence in North Africa after 1870, establishing a protectorate in Tunisia in 1881 with the Bardo Treaty. ", David E. Gardinier, "Schooling in the states of equatorial Africa. New France, French Nouvelle-France, (1534–1763), the French colonies of continental North America, initially embracing the shores of the St. Lawrence River, Newfoundland, and Acadia (Nova Scotia) but gradually expanding to include much of the Great Lakes region and parts of the trans-Appalachian West. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795.. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada). The Vietnamese ruler was compelled to cede three provinces to France, and to offer protection to the Catholics. However, France formally relinquished its protectorate over Morocco and granted it independence in 1956. Eugénie was invited to attend a traditional Arab wedding, and the Emperor met many of the local leaders. At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions; though Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Isle de France (now Mauritius). Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. He offered a wide amnesty to participants of the insurrection, and promised to name Arabs to high positions in his government. After the actual conquest of a territory, law was supposed to substitute the might of weapons. , Most Frenchmen ignored foreign affairs and colonial issues. Atlas held up the sky for centuries. In 1804 Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti (St. Domingue), ordered the massacre of whites remaining on the island.  Algeria was a three-way conflict due to the large number of "pieds-noirs" (Europeans who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule). ", In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. This policy of French colonial leaders determining France's African war aims can be seen throughout much of France's empire.. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Cartes montrant l'histoire des colonies français, 1848 Levasseur Map of Senegal, Gambia and Madagascar - Geographicus - AfricaFr-levasseur-1847.jpg, 1850 Levasseur Map of Ile de La Reunion - Geographicus - Reunion-levasseur-1850.jpg, 1852 Levasseur Map of Guyana, Miquelon, Newfoundland, and St. Martin - Geographicus - GuyaneMiquelon-levasseur-1852.jpg, 71 of 'Le Globe illustré. The French Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 . Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots in British or Dutch colonies. (Utley and Washburn "Indian Wars" 1977 - the authors make no distinction between the French and India Wars and the Seven Years War calling them together the Great War for Empire). The Franco-Tahitian War broke out between the Tahitian people and the French from 1844 to 1847 as France attempted to consolidate their rule and extend their rule into the Leeward Islands where Queen Pōmare sought refuge with her relatives.  In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 French Algerians left Algeria in the largest relocation of population in Europe since World War II.  Two ships, the Croissant and the Corbin, were sent around the Cape of Good Hope in May 1601. The French continued the guise of protection until the 1880s when they formally annexed Tahiti with the abdication of King Pōmare V on 29 June 1880. A Reassessment of the Parti Colonial, 1890-1914", T. G. Otte, "From 'War-in-Sight' to Nearly War: Anglo–French Relations in the Age of High Imperialism, 1875–1898,", Linden A. Mander, "The New Hebrides Condominium. In the Protectorate of Morocco, the French administration attempted to use urban planning and colonial education to prevent cultural mixing and to uphold the traditional society upon which the French depended for collaboration, with mixed results. Concession Française L'Indochine - Un Empire Colonial Français, 1929, Maspero . , As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies. French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World. Nominated.  Captain [first name unknown] Sorrell of the British navy observed, "France lost there one of the finest armies she ever sent forth, composed of picked veterans, the conquerors of Italy and of German legions. 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